Articles on research papers
The term research paper may also refer to a scholarly article that contains the results of original research or an evaluation of research conducted by others. The first step in writing a research paper is defining your research question. Has your instructor assigned a specific topic? If so, great—you've got this step covered. If not, review the guidelines of the assignment. Your instructor has likely provided several general subjects for your consideration. Your research paper should focus on a specific angle on one of these subjects.
Spend some time mulling over your options before deciding which one you'd like to explore more deeply. Try to choose a research question that interests you. The research process is time-consuming, and you'll be significantly more motivated if you have a genuine desire to learn more about the topic. First, review your library's website. What resources are available? Where will you find them? Do any resources require a special process to gain access?
Create a list of these idiosyncrasies and run a search for these problems using your word processor. The same targeted search can be done to eliminate wordiness.
The final strategy is working with a hard copy and a pencil. Print a double space copy with font size 14 and re-read your paper in several steps. Try reading your paper line by line with the rest of the text covered with a piece of paper. When you are forced to see only a small portion of your writing, you are less likely to get distracted and are more likely to notice problems. You will end up spotting more unnecessary words, wrongly worded phrases, or unparallel constructions. After you apply all these strategies, you are ready to share your writing with your friends, colleagues, and a writing advisor in the writing center.
Get as much feedback as you can, especially from non-specialists in your field. You may decide what you want to change and how after you receive the feedback and sort it in your head. Even though some researchers make the revision an endless process and can hardly stop after a 14th draft; having from five to seven drafts of your paper is a norm in the sciences.
Deadlines always help. It is late at night again.
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You are still in your lab finishing revisions and getting ready to submit your paper. You will submit your paper tomorrow, and regardless of the outcome, you know that you can do it. If one journal does not take your paper, you will take advantage of the feedback and resubmit again. You will have a publication, and this is the most important achievement.
What is even more important is that you have your scheduled writing time that you are going to keep for your future publications, for reading and taking notes, for writing grants, and for reviewing papers. You are not going to lose stamina this time, and you will become a productive scientist. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Yale J Biol Med. Elena D. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. To whom all correspondence should be addressed: Elena D. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License, which permits for noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any digital medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not altered in any way.
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Abstract Writing a research manuscript is an intimidating process for many novice writers in the sciences. Keywords: scientific paper, writing process, revision. Schedule your writing time in Outlook Whether you have written papers or you are struggling with your first, starting the process is the most difficult part unless you have a rigid writing schedule. Rule 1: Create regular time blocks for writing as appointments in your calendar and keep these appointments.
Start with an outline Now that you have scheduled time, you need to decide how to start writing. Table 1 Outline — Level 1. What is the topic of my paper?
Why is this topic important? How could I formulate my hypothesis?
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What are my results include visuals? What is my major finding? Open in a separate window. Table 2 Outline — Level 2. Introduction 1. Why is your research important? What is known about the topic? What are your hypotheses? What are your objectives? Materials and Methods 1. What materials did you use? Who were the subjects of your study? What was the design of your research?
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What procedure did you follow? Results 1.
What are your most significant results? What are your supporting results? Discussion and Conclusions 1. What are the studies major findings? Rule 2: Create a detailed outline and discuss it with your mentor and peers. Continue with drafts After you get enough feedback and decide on the journal you will submit to, the process of real writing begins. Starting with Materials and Methods If you still struggle with starting a paper, then write the Materials and Methods section first.